The term transvestite and the associated outdated term transvestism are conceptually different from the term transvestic fetishism , as transvestic fetishist describes those who intermittently use clothing of the opposite gender for fetishistic purposes. Drag is a term applied to clothing and makeup worn on special occasions for performing or entertaining, unlike those who are transgender or who cross-dress for other reasons.
Drag performance includes overall presentation and behavior in addition to clothing and makeup. Drag can be theatrical, comedic, or grotesque. Drag queens have been considered caricatures of women by second-wave feminism. Drag artists have a long tradition in LGBT culture. Generally the term drag queen covers men doing female drag, drag king covers women doing male drag, and faux queen covers women doing female drag.
Nevertheless, there are drag artists of all genders and sexualities who perform for various reasons. Some drag performers, transvestites, and people in the gay community have embraced the pornographically-derived term tranny to describe drag queens or people who engage in transvestism or cross-dressing; however, this term is widely considered offensive if applied to transgender people. Intersex people have genitalia or other physical sex characteristics that do not conform to strict definitions of male or female, but intersex people are not necessarily transgender because they do not necessarily disagree with their assigned sex.
Transgender and intersex issues often overlap, however, because they may both challenge rigid definitions of sex and gender. The concepts of gender identity and transgender identity differ from that of sexual orientation. Despite the distinction between sexual orientation and gender, throughout history the gay, lesbian, and bisexual subculture was often the only place where gender-variant people were socially accepted in the gender role they felt they belonged to; especially during the time when legal or medical transitioning was almost impossible.
This acceptance has had a complex history. Like the wider world, the gay community in Western societies did not generally distinguish between sex and gender identity until the s, and often perceived gender-variant people more as homosexuals who behaved in a gender-variant way than as gender-variant people in their own right. Today, members of the transgender community often continue to struggle to remain part of the same movement as lesbian, gay, and bisexual people and to be included in rights protections.
In addition, the role of the transgender community in the history of LGBT rights is often overlooked, as shown in Transforming History. Most mental health professionals recommend therapy for internal conflicts about gender identity or discomfort in an assigned gender role, especially if one desires to transition. People who experience discord between their gender and the expectations of others or whose gender identity conflicts with their body may benefit by talking through their feelings in depth; however, research on gender identity with regard to psychology, and scientific understanding of the phenomenon and its related issues, is relatively new.
The validity of the diagnosis and its presence in the forthcoming ICD is debated. France removed gender identity disorder as a diagnosis by decree in ,   but according to French trans rights organizations, beyond the impact of the announcement itself, nothing changed.
The DSM-5 refers to the topic as gender dysphoria while reinforcing the idea that being transgender is not considered a mental illness. Transgender people may meet the criteria for a diagnosis of gender identity disorder GID "only if [being transgender] causes distress or disability. This diagnosis is often misinterpreted as implying that transgender people suffer from GID; this misinterpretation has greatly confused transgender people and those who seek to either criticize or affirm them.
Transgender people who are comfortable with their gender and whose gender is not directly causing inner frustration or impairing their functioning do not suffer from GID. Moreover, GID is not necessarily permanent and is often resolved through therapy or transitioning. Feeling oppressed by the negative attitudes and behaviors of such others as legal entities does not indicate GID. GID does not imply an opinion of immorality; the psychological establishment holds that people with any kind of mental or emotional problem should not receive stigma.
The solution for GID is whatever will alleviate suffering and restore functionality; this solution often, but not always, consists of undergoing a gender transition. Clinical training lacks relevant information needed in order to adequately help transgender clients, which results in a large number of practitioners who are not prepared to sufficiently work with this population of individuals. Those who seek help from these professionals often educate the professional without receiving help. Instead, therapists can support their clients in whatever steps they choose to take to transition or can support their decision not to transition while also addressing their clients' sense of congruence between gender identity and appearance.
Acknowledgment of the lack of clinical training has increased; however, research on the specific problems faced by the transgender community in mental health has focused on diagnosis and clinicians' experiences instead of transgender clients' experiences. Prior to the seventh version of the Standards of Care SOC , an individual had to be diagnosed with gender identity disorder in order to proceed with hormone treatments or sexual reassignment surgery.
The new version decreased the focus on diagnosis and instead emphasized the importance of flexibility in order to meet the diverse health care needs of transsexual, transgender, and all gender-nonconforming people. The reasons for seeking mental health services vary according to the individual. A transgender person seeking treatment does not necessarily mean their gender identity is problematic.
The emotional strain of dealing with stigma and experiencing transphobia pushes many transgender people to seek treatment to improve their quality of life, as one trans woman reflected: It has to do because they've had to hide, they've had to lie, and they've felt all of this guilt and shame, unfortunately usually for years! Problems still remain surrounding misinformation about transgender issues that hurt transgender people's mental health experiences.
One trans man who was enrolled as a student in a psychology graduate program highlighted the main concerns with modern clinical training: Most therapists—Master's degree, PhD level—they've had. One class out of the huge diversity training. And it was probably mostly about gay lifestyle. The issues around psychological classifications and associated stigma whether based in paraphilia or not of cross-dressers, transsexual men and women and lesbian and gay children, who may resemble trans children early in life have become more complex since CAMH Centre for Addiction and Mental Health colleagues Kenneth Zucker and Ray Blanchard were announced to be serving on the DSM-V 's Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Work Group.
Within the trans community, this intention has mostly produced shock and outrage with attempts to organize other responses. Medical and surgical procedures exist for transsexual and some transgender people, though most categories of transgender people as described above are not known for seeking the following treatments.
Current management of male‐to‐female gender identity disorder in the UK
Hormone replacement therapy for trans men induces beard growth and masculinizes skin, hair, voice, and fat distribution. Hormone replacement therapy for trans women feminizes fat distribution and breasts. Laser hair removal or electrolysis removes excess hair for trans women. Surgical procedures for trans women feminize the voice , skin , face , adam's apple , breasts , waist , buttocks , and genitals.
Surgical procedures for trans men masculinize the chest and genitals and remove the womb , ovaries, and fallopian tubes. The term " sex reassignment therapy " SRT is used as an umbrella term for physical procedures required for transition. Use of the term " sex change " has been criticized for its emphasis on surgery, and the term "transition" is preferred.
Trans men who have not had a hysterectomy and who take testosterone are at increased risk for endometrial cancer because androstenedione , which is made from testosterone in the body, can be converted into estrogen , and external estrogen is a risk factor for endometrial cancer.
Legal procedures exist in some jurisdictions which allow individuals to change their legal gender or name to reflect their gender identity. Requirements for these procedures vary from an explicit formal diagnosis of transsexualism , to a diagnosis of gender identity disorder , to a letter from a physician that attests the individual's gender transition or having established a different gender role. In many places, transgender people are not legally protected from discrimination in the workplace or in public accommodations.
In November , the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the civil status law must allow a third gender option.
The ruling came after an intersex person, who is neither a man nor woman according to chromosomal analysis, brought a legal challenge after attempting to change their registered sex to "inter" or divers. Jurisdiction over legal classification of sex in Canada is assigned to the provinces and territories. This includes legal change of gender classification.
On June 19, Bill C , after having passed the legislative process in the House of Commons of Canada and the Senate of Canada , became law upon receiving Royal Assent which put it into immediate force. The bill also added "gender identity and expression" to the list of aggravating factors in sentencing, where the accused commits a criminal offence against an individual because of those personal characteristics. Similar transgender laws also exist in all the provinces and territories.
In the United States, a federal bill to protect workers from discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, has stalled and failed several times over the past two decades. She argued that being denied access to her high school's women's restroom was a violation of Maine's Human Rights Act; one state judge has disagreed with her,  but Maines won her lawsuit against the Orono school district in January before the Maine Supreme Judicial Court. On June 30, , the United States Department of Defense removed the ban that prohibited transgender people from openly serving in the US military.
Sexual assault, including molestation, rape, forced anal and oral sex, gang rape and stripping is being committed with impunity and there are reliable statistics and materials to support such activities. Further, access to public toilets is also a serious problem they face quite often. Discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation or gender identity, therefore, impairs equality before law and equal protection of law and violates Article 14 of the Constitution of India. Some feminists and feminist groups are supportive of transgender people. Though second-wave feminism argued for the sex and gender distinction , some feminists believed there was a conflict between transgender identity and the feminist cause; e.
Many transgender feminists, however, view themselves as contributing to feminism by questioning and subverting gender norms. Third-wave and contemporary feminism are generally more supportive of transgender people. A study of Swedes estimated a ratio of 1. The causes of transsexuality have been studied for decades. The most studied factors are biological. Certain brain structures in trans women have been found to be similar to cisgender women's as opposed to cis men's, and trans men's have been found to be similar to cis men's, even controlling for hormone use , which can also cause trans people's brains to become closer to those of cis people of the same gender.
However, these studies are limited as they include a small number of tested individuals. Studies have also found that both androphilic and gynephilic trans women's brain function and responses are like cis women's and unlike cis men's, or are intermediate between the two. Likewise, studies such as Rametti's have found that trans men have male-like white matter patterns even before using hormones , regardless of sexual orientation.
With regard to genetic factors, a study by Hare reported that trans women have a longer androgen receptor gene than cis men, which is less effective at binding testosterone, potentially preventing complete masculinization of the brain prenatal androgen exposure or sensitivity, or lack thereof, is an often cited mechanism to explain observed brain-structure differences.
Environmental factors have also been proposed. The failure of an attempt to raise David Reimer from infancy through adolescence as a girl after his genitals were accidentally mutilated is cited as disproving the theory that gender identity is determined by upbringing. Ray Blanchard developed a taxonomy of male-to-female transsexualism that proposes two distinct etiologies for androphilic and gynephilic individuals that has become highly controversial, supported by J.
According to Amnesty International , 1. One effort to quantify the population gave a "rough estimate" that 0. This would put the total number of transgender Americans at approximately 1. In Latin American cultures, a travesti is a person who has been assigned male at birth and who has a feminine, transfeminine, or "femme" gender identity. Travestis generally undergo hormonal treatment, use female gender expression including new names and pronouns from the masculine ones they were given when assigned a sex, and might use breast implants, but they are not offered or do not desire sex-reassignment surgery.
They are framed as something entirely separate from transgender women, who possess the same gender identity of people assigned female at birth. Other transgender identities are becoming more widely known, as a result of contact with other cultures of the Western world. In Thailand and Laos ,  the term kathoey is used to refer to male-to-female transgender people  and effeminate gay men. Transgender people have also been documented in Iran ,  Japan,  Nepal ,  Indonesia ,  Vietnam ,  South Korea,  Singapore ,  and the greater Chinese region , including Hong Kong,   Taiwan ,  and the People's Republic of China.
In India , the Supreme Court on April 15, , recognized a third gender that is neither male nor female, stating "Recognition of transgenders as a third gender is not a social or medical issue but a human rights issue. On January 5, , Reuters stated that the first transgender mayor was elected in central India. In early Medina , gender-variant  male-to-female Islamic people were acknowledged  in the form of the Mukhannathun.
In Ancient Rome , the Gallae were castrated  followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele and can be regarded as transgender in today's terms. Among the ancient Middle Eastern Akkadian people, a salzikrum was a person who appeared biologically female but had distinct male traits. Salzikrum is a compound word meaning male daughter. A salzikrum's father could also stipulate that she inherit a certain amount. Mahu is a traditional status in Polynesian cultures.
Also, in Fa'asamoa traditions, the Samoan culture allows a specific role for male to female transgender individuals as Fa'afafine. Transgender people vary greatly in choosing when, whether, and how to disclose their transgender status to family, close friends, and others. Fear of retaliatory behavior, such as being removed from the parental home while underage, is a cause for transgender people to not come out to their families until they have reached adulthood. The internet can play a significant role in the coming out process for transgender people.
Some come out in an online identity first, providing an opportunity to go through experiences virtually and safely before risking social sanctions in the real world. As more transgender people are represented and included within the realm of mass culture, the stigma that is associated with being transgender can influence the decisions, ideas, and thoughts based upon it.
Media representation, culture industry , and social marginalization all hint at popular culture standards and the applicability and significance to mass culture as well. These terms play an important role in the formation of notions for those who have little recognition or knowledge of transgender people.
Media depictions represent only a minuscule spectrum of the transgender group,  which essentially conveys that those that are shown are the only interpretations and ideas society has of them. However, in , the United States reached a "transgender tipping point", according to Time. Since then, the number of transgender portrayals across TV platforms has stayed elevated.
International Transgender Day of Visibility is an annual holiday occurring on March 31   dedicated to celebrating transgender people and raising awareness of discrimination faced by transgender people worldwide. The holiday was founded by Michigan-based transgender activist  Rachel Crandall in  as a reaction to the lack of LGBT holidays celebrating transgender people, citing the frustration that the only well-known transgender-centered holiday was the Transgender Day of Remembrance which mourned the loss of transgender people to hate crimes, but did not acknowledge and celebrate living members of the transgender community.
Transgender Awareness Week , typically observed the second week of November, is a one-week celebration leading up to Transgender Day of Remembrance.
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The purpose of Transgender Awareness Week is to educate about transgender and gender non-conforming people and the issues associated with their transition or identity. TDOR serves a number of purposes:. Trans March describes annual marches, protests or gatherings that take place around the world, often taking place during the time of the local pride week. These events are frequently organized by transgender communities to build community, address human rights struggles, and create visibility. A common symbol for the transgender community is the Transgender Pride flag , which was designed by the American transgender woman Monica Helms in , and was first shown at a pride parade in Phoenix, Arizona , United States in The flag consists of five horizontal stripes, two light blue, two pink, with a white stripe in the center.
The light blue is the traditional color for baby boys, pink is for girls, and the white in the middle is for "those who are transitioning, those who feel they have a neutral gender or no gender", and those who are intersex.
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The pattern is such that "no matter which way you fly it, it will always be correct. This symbolizes us trying to find correctness in our own lives. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Health care and medicine. Genderqueer , Bigender , and Androgyny. Drag king , Drag queen , and Faux queen. Legal recognition of non-binary gender. Transgender rights in Germany. Transgender rights in Canada. Transgender rights in the United States.
Transgender people and religion. Feminist views on transgender and transsexual people and Transfeminism. Part of this section is transcluded from Causes of transsexuality. National Coming Out Day. International Transgender Day of Visibility. Transgender Day of Remembrance.
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Transgender portal LGBT portal. Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 28 May In the edition of Clinical Sexuality: A Manual for the Physician and the Professions 3rd ed.
University of Michigan digitized Aug Archived from the original on However A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry references "transgender surgery" noting, "The transvestite rarely seeks transgender surgery, since the core of his perversion is an attempt to realize the fantasy of a phallic woman. A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry. University of Michigan, digitized August Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 28 June Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social Work. Archived from the original on December 1, Retrieved April 12, Forsyth, Heith Copes Encyclopedia of Social Deviance.
Social Work and Social Welfare: An umbrella term that describes people whose gender identity or gender expression differs from expectations associated with the sex assigned to them at birth. National Transgender Discrimination Survey: Implications for Transgender Health Research". Archived from the original on August 8, Retrieved August 10, Archived PDF from the original on March 4, Retrieved March 28, Development and validation of the Transgender Congruence Scale".
Psychology of Women Quarterly. National Center for Transgender Equality. Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 20 April Transgender Experiences with Violence and Discrimination". American Journal of Public Health. Transsexual and Transgender Rights. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Psychologically, the transsexual often differs from the simple cross-dresser; he is conscious at all times of a strong desire to be a woman, and the urge can be truly consuming.
The Rhetorical Landscape of a term". A Journal of Rhetoric in Society. The term transgender was coined by John Oliven and popularized by various transgender people who pioneered the concept and practice of transgenderism. It is sometimes said that Virginia Prince popularized the term, but history shows that many transgender people advocated the use of this term much more than Prince. Archived from the original on 7 April Archived from the original on 30 March Transgendered persons include transsexuals, transgenderists, and other crossdressers of both sexes, transitioning in either direction male to female or female to male , of any sexual orientation, and of all races, creeds, religions, ages, and degrees of physical impediment.
The police got us, but my friend refused to attend court and my life began to disintegrate — the judge was hell-bent on sentencing us together. The case dragged and I dropped any intention of transition — and out of college. I was sentenced to two years. Some boys picked on me, but I won over most of them with my rude poems. And I learned that writing letters can be quite invigorating. I had Gay Times posters of hunks on the wall and I stole red chalk to use as lipstick when we were locked up for the night. And in my mind I painted a picture of who I wished to be. I wanted to be educated, healthy, respected and, more importantly, a girl.
I made a pact to try my best. I was released early from borstal and put under curfew — I had to live with Mama but managed to get it extended so I could work in the evenings selling dodgy timeshare in a call centre. After four months the curfew ended, my electronic tagging device was cut off and I moved into my own place.
I was determined to finish my A-levels and went to college. I was paid more for that. I got a cat. As I was waiting for my A-level results, though, a lesson arrived to teach me how short life can be — Mama died, unexpectedly. Before I set off, I tried to get help. At a clinic in the leafy avenues of Sherwood, I explained to the doctor that I wanted to transition. She asked me if I wanted to become a man. You have to see your local psychiatrist before they can refer you to a gender identity clinic, but the letter they promised me never came.
I must have checked my mirror at least 10 times as I walked along the seafront to meet fellow students for cocktails that first night. What if they noticed my big hands? I paid thousands of pounds for laser hair removal. I was still doing sex work: They liked me because I was trans, not in spite of it, and sometimes it was good fun. There are plenty of attractive young men out there who would rather pay for sex with transgender women than risk the shame of dating us.
I learned a great deal about shame. My mum was ashamed of me being trans back then and my lovers were too, so what did I have to feel proud about? A prison sentence was better because you at least had an end date. Dr Martin prescribed antidepressants and tranquillisers and referred me for specialist psychiatric care in London.
I hated travelling to London, but I saw that putting myself outside my comfort zone could be a good thing — and it gave me hope again.
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I started being more open about being transgender and, after hormone therapy, I put on weight and began to look more feminine. Cognitive behavioural therapy encouraged me to leave the house more and meet people again. I was feeling stronger, but was desperate for meaning in my life. The answer seemed to be devoting myself to making things better for people like me. I helped out at a transgender charity and somehow managed to graduate from university, depression and prostitution all at the same time.
The wheel of fortune was lurching forward, so I gave it a good shove. Paid writing work came in, here and there. Last year, with financial help from my mum — who is now my biggest supporter — I had facial feminisation surgery. The surgery undid the unwanted effects of my male puberty and, these days, if I run out of milk I just pop my hair in a band and nip to the local shop.
No one bats an eyelid. I look younger, now, than I ever did in my troublesome teens. Can you blame me for knocking a year or so off my age sometimes?